The submarine is a ship capable of traveling underwater and on the surface of the water. First used extensively in World War I, they are now part of all major navies.
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The submarine is a fairly old invention, although it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that the submarine took approximately the form we know today.
The first use of these vehicles is dated from the 17th century when the Cossacks used a submersible boat to carry out surveillance and infiltration missions.
The first submersible for which reliable information is available was built in 1620 by a Dutchman in the service of James I of England named Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel. These prototypes were tested in the River Thames between 1620 and 1624.
Of course, and as it could not be otherwise, the military quickly realized the potential these submersibles could have, which made their development much faster from there.
From a constructive point of view, a modern submarine has two hulls, one inside the other. The exterior is called the “Hydrodynamic Hull”. It gives the ship the hydrodynamic figure necessary for it to move with speed both on the water surface and in immersion.
The inner hull, called the “Resistant Hull”, as its name indicates, is built to resist the pressure of the water when the submarine is submerged.
From a physical point of view, it is nothing more than a large steel cylinder of high resistance, inside which are all the accommodations for the crew (cabins, dining room, kitchen, etc.). Inside this hull, there are also the torpedo compartments, and the command area (navigation, information, periscope, etc.)
When the captain of the submarine decides to dive, all the openings in the sturdy hull are closed, making it a watertight vessel capable of maintaining the pressure and oxygen necessary for its crew to survive underwater.
The submarine needs a tank system to be able to dive (and re-emerge). Indeed, they have so-called “immersion tanks”, generally located on both sides of the hull, which, once flooded, give the submarine the necessary weight to be able to descend.
Just like a fish, the amount of water inside these tanks gives it a barely positive buoyancy, allowing it to go down, up, or sail between two seas.