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Avocado is the name of the tree and the fruit and is a word that comes from the Nahuatl word ahuacatl. This species is native to America, but at present, the taste for the flavor of its fruit is worldwide.
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The genus Persea contains about 150 species of plants that are part of the Lauraceae family, the same as the laurel. The importance of Persea Americana is that its fruit is one of the few edible of its genus.
A deciduous tree that reaches up to 20 meters high. The trunk of greyish-brown bark is straight and measures between 30 and 60 centimeters in diameter.
The leaves are alternate, of brilliant green in the superior region and a lighter tone in the inferior one; of long, oval form and with the pointed end. They are 12 to 25 centimeters long.
Its flowers are small and show a greenish color in its six petals and other parts. However, the fruit is the most appreciated part of the tree. It is a single-seeded berry in the shape of a pear, more round or oval depending on the variety.
When ripe, the fruit may exhibit an external color ranging from green to dark purple, with a smooth or wrinkled texture. The light green or yellow flesh is soft, slightly sweet, and with a taste similar to butter. Avocado tree – Persea Americana
So far, it is accepted that Persea Americana is a species native to southern Mexico; it probably originates from Puebla, Mexico. The presence of its trace in South America suggests that its cultivation spread favorably.
Before the conquistadors arrived in the New World, it was already a cultivated tree from the Rio Grande (now the U.S.-Mexican border) to Peru.
Over time the species was brought to various warm, tropical, and subtropical regions. It was introduced to Indonesia in 1750, to South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century and Brazil in 1809. Today it is cultivated in several countries with a tropical and Mediterranean climate.